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Grammatical Parts of Speech
A part of speech that modifies, enumerates, or describes
a noun, or which otherwise denotes its qualities (Algeo
311). For example, consider this sentence:
ugly man ate the seven
The word ugly is an adjective
modifying the noun man. The words luscious
and seven are adjectives modifying the noun apple.
Contrast with adverb, below. Note that
verbals describing words (running, broken)
are considered adjectives.
A part of speech that modifies sentences, verbs, adjectives,
or other adverbs. Often adverbs in English are words ending
in the suffix -ly. Adjectives explain how
or in what way. Often adjectives intensify the
word that follows them. For example, consider this sentence:
very ugly man rapidly
ate the luscious apple.
The word very is an adverb
modifies the adjective ugly. It explains how
ugly. The word rapidly is an adverb that modifies
the verb ate. It explains in what way the
man ate the apple. Contrast with adjective, above.
The words the, a,
and an are articles.
They appear before nouns to indicate the quality of definiteness
or indefiniteness. The
is the definite article and
a and an
are indefinite articles.
A word that connects or joins parts of a sentence together.
Conjunctions fall into three categories. The first group
includes the pure or coordinating
conjunctions (and, or,
but, nor, for, and sometimes
yet), which can join all sorts of words, phrases,
or clauses together with appropriate punctuation.
ran around the track and
drank water, Gatorade,
ran around the track several times,
and I drank some water
Second, subordinate conjunctions
(such as if, because, when,
until etc.) can connect dependent clauses to
independent clauses. If the clause appears appears after
the independent clause, it uses no commas.
drank some water because
I ran around the track until I became tired.
However, if the subordinate conjunction
and the subordinate clause appear before the
independent clause, a comma separates it from the rest
of the sentence.
I ran around the track,
I became tired.
Third, conjunctive adverbs
(such as however, therefore, moreover, accordingly, etc.)
can be used after a semicolon (with a comma following)
to connect two closely related independent clauses together.
ran around the track several times;
I need to drink some water.