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328 Study Questions: Kolln Chapter Four: "Transforming the Basic Patterns"

Vocabulary (see pages 369-84 of Kolln): case, cleft sentence, command, declarative sentence, definite article, Do support, emphatic sentence, exclamatory sentence, expletive there, imperative sentence, indefinite article, interrogative sentence, it cleft, objective case, person, subjective case, subject-verb agreement, there transformation, Wh-question, What cleft, Yes/no question.


  • In the chapter preview, Kolln notes that not all sentences are straightforward statements in the declarative mood. What other moods does he offer as a contrast?
  • The term grammatical transformation comes from what theory of grammar? Who created this theory of grammar?
  • Explain the difference between "deep" and "surface" structure of grammar.
  • What is the difference bertween yes/no questions and wh-questions?
  • What is an "interrogative"? What slots do interrogatives fill in a sentence diagram?
  • When it comes to subjective pronoun case and objective pronoun case, when should we use who and when should we use whom--at least in traditional grammar?
  • Explain the concept of do-support.
  • In addition to serving as emphasis, English speakers use one other technique to create emphatic sentences. This technique involves shifting stress to what part of the sentence?
  • What is an imperative sentence? Who or what is the subject of an imperative sentence?
  • What normally indicates an exclamatory sentence or an exclamation in terms of punctuation? In terms of form, how do exclamatory sentences often overlap structurally with the form of imperatives and the form of interrogatives? (Hint: Look at examples on page 100.)
  • What is a there-transformation? What grammatical part does the introductory word play in such a sentence? (trick question!)
  • When diagramming a sentence with a there transformation, where do we place the word there to indicate its lack of grammatical function?
  • How can there-transformations create an exception to the normal ruule of subject-verb agreement? Provide an example.
  • When it comes to indefinite articles, normally the indefinite form ("a") appears when we first mention an indefinite noun. However, in subsequent uses of that noun, what changes in terms of article usage?
  • In spoken English, speakers can emphasize certain parts of a sentence by stress. How does a cleft sentence allow a writer to create the same effect? Give an example.


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