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328 Study Questions: Kolln Chapter Four: "Transforming
the Basic Patterns"
Vocabulary (see pages 369-84 of Kolln):
case, cleft sentence, command, declarative sentence, definite
article, Do support, emphatic sentence, exclamatory sentence,
expletive there, imperative sentence, indefinite article,
interrogative sentence, it cleft, objective case, person,
subjective case, subject-verb agreement, there transformation,
Wh-question, What cleft, Yes/no question.
- In the chapter preview, Kolln notes that not all sentences
are straightforward statements in the declarative mood.
What other moods does he offer as a contrast?
- The term grammatical transformation comes from what
theory of grammar? Who created this theory of grammar?
- Explain the difference between "deep" and "surface"
structure of grammar.
- What is the difference bertween yes/no questions and
- What is an "interrogative"? What slots do interrogatives
fill in a sentence diagram?
- When it comes to subjective pronoun case and objective
pronoun case, when should we use who and when
should we use whom--at least in traditional
- Explain the concept of do-support.
- In addition to serving as emphasis, English speakers
use one other technique to create emphatic sentences.
This technique involves shifting stress to what part
of the sentence?
- What is an imperative sentence? Who or what is the
subject of an imperative sentence?
- What normally indicates an exclamatory sentence or
an exclamation in terms of punctuation? In terms of form,
how do exclamatory sentences often overlap structurally
with the form of imperatives and the form of interrogatives?
(Hint: Look at examples on page 100.)
- What is a there-transformation? What grammatical
part does the introductory word play in such a sentence?
- When diagramming a sentence with a there transformation,
where do we place the word there to indicate its lack
of grammatical function?
- How can there-transformations create an exception to
the normal ruule of subject-verb agreement? Provide an
- When it comes to indefinite articles, normally the
indefinite form ("a") appears when we first mention an
indefinite noun. However, in subsequent uses of that
noun, what changes in terms of article usage?
- In spoken English, speakers can emphasize certain parts
of a sentence by stress. How does a cleft sentence allow
a writer to create the same effect? Give an example.