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328 Study Questions: Kolln Chapter Eight: "Sentence Modifiers."


Vocabulary (see pages 369-84 of Kolln): absolute phrase, broad-reference clause, direct address, elliptical clause, idiomatic expression, independent modifier, interjection, metadiscourse, relative clause, sentence appositive, sentence modifier, subordinate clause, vocative

Questions:

  • According to the chapter preview, how how sentence modifiers different from the modifiers we sawin chapter five, six, and seven?
  • According to the chapter preview, how do most grammar books handle sentence-level modifier? Do they treat them as a particular part of speech or as fulfilling a particular role in the sentence? If so, what?
  • Explain the difference in meaning between these two sentences when we look at the word unfortunately.

    Geoffrey unfortunately could not tell the difference between almond extract and cyanide.
    Unfortunately, Geoffrey could not tell the difference between almond extract and cyanide
    Clearly, Susan made a gesture that offended the near-sighted nun.
    Susan clearly made a gesture that offended the near-sighted nun.

  • In which sentence is unfortunately a sentence-level modifier? How does your book suggest we diagram unfortunately when it is functioning in that way?
  • How can commas help us identify sentence-level modifiers?
  • According to page 206 of Kolln and Funk, why should we treat phrases like having said that and to tell the truth as idiomatic? How does the textbook suggest we diagram them?
  • On page 207, what punctuation mark typically sets off a vocative phrase?
  • In the following sentences, which one contains a vocative phrase and which one contains an appositive phrase?
  • One of my brothers, Jerry, is a taxidermist who specializes in hedgehogs.
    Are you listening to me, Jerry? One of my brothers is a taxidermist who specializes in hedgehogs.
    I have an unusual phobia, a fear of being eaten by voracious hell-beetles, that prevents me from pursuing a degree in entomology.
    A fear of being eaten by voracious hell-beetles, George? What kind of phobia is that?
  • What is an interjection? Provide an example. What punctuation mark typically accompanies an interjection?
  • On pages 207-08, why do the authors of your textbook dislike the traditional categorization of interjections as one of the eight parts of speech?
  • How does the punctuation of subordinate clauses compare to the punctuation of restrictive/non-restrictive distinctions made earlier in chapter six?
  • Possible Lecture Question: How do Funk and Kolln's guidelines for punctuation with subordinate clauses with even though and although compare or contrast with Dr. Wheeler's rule of thumb on these issues?
  • What is an elliptical clause? How can elliptical clauses potentially create dangling modifiers?
  • What is an absolute phrase? Provide an example.
  • What is a nominative absolute? (trick question!)
  • How is an absolute phrase or a nominative absolute useful in comparison to a because clause?
  • What famous example of a confusing absolute phrase does our textbook offer from the Constitution?
  • Give an example of an absolute phrase acting as a postnoun modifier.
  • Which of the following sentences uses an absolute phrase and which uses an appositive?

    Admiral Toth destroyed the planet Dantoinne with a single blast from his gold-plated Deathstar, a shocking act of evil.
    Admiral Toth destroyed the planet Dantoinne, a peaceful green world, with a single blast from his gold-plated Deathstar.
  • How are many sentence-level appositives typically or often puncuated beyond the use of a comma?
  • What is a relative clause? Provide an example.
  • What is broad reference when it comes to relative clauses?
  • What word always introduces a broad-reference clause?
  • Are broad-reference clauses restrictive or nonrestrictive?
  • How can broad-reference relative clauses lead to a lack of clarity? Provide an example of such ambiguity.

 

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