Henry I, (alias "Henry Beauclerc") youngest son of William the Conqueror, becomes
the new king of England following the asassination of his older brother, William Rufus. He rules until 1135, and the period is a time of peace and prosperity in Britain marked by legal reforms.
Crusaders claim fiefdoms in Holy Land. Baldwin of Bouillon
becomes Count of Edessa in the new Holy Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Raymond of Toulouse becomes Count of Tripoli. Bohemund
of Otranto becomes Prince of Antioch.
1100-1200: French literature dominates Western Europe.
1100-1250: Icelandic sagas, Grettirsaga, Volsungsaga, etc.
c. 1100 "Play of Saint Catherine" (performed at Dunstable)--first recorded miracle play in England.
c. 1100 Earlier tales in the Welsh Mabinogion written in surviving manuscript forms (but tales probably older than surviving manuscripts)
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||Crusaders capture Acre
Henry V becomes Holy Roman Emperor. He rules until
Henry I defeats Robert, Duke of Normandy. He imprisons
Robert for the remainder of Robert's life.
||Alexander I becomes King of Scotland. He
rules until 1124.
||Louis VI becomes King of France. He rules
||England and France begin war with each other.
||Emperor Henry V forces Pope Paschal II to
acknowledge power of the emperor.
The Papacy acknowledges the Founding of the Order of
Truce between England and France.
||Matilda (alias Maud), princess of England,
marries Emperor Henry V of Germany.
Stephen II claims the throne of Hungary. He rules until
Saint Bernard founds the Abbey of Clairvaux in France.
||John II Comnenus becomes Emperor of Byzantium.
He rules until 1143.
||Hugues de Payens founds the Order of the
||Prince William, heir of Henry I of England,
drowned in the wreck of the "White Ship" during
||Concordat of Worms: conference of German
princes ends the dispute between pope and Holy Roman Emperor
over the appointment of Bishops.
||Death of Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and
writer of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
David I, younger brother of Alexander I,
takes the throne of Scotland. He rules until 1153.
c. 1125 Eadmer writes The Life of Anselm
||Flourishing of Latin chroniclesi n Britain between 1125-1300.
||Alfonso VII becomes ruler of Castille in
modern day Spain. He rules until 1157.
||Alfonso Henriques becomes Count of Portugal.
He works hard to establish Portugal as a kingdom independent
of Spain, finally succeeding in 1143.
||Empress Matilda, widow of German Emperor
Henry V, marries Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou
in France. (Geoffrey's nickname is "the Handsome,"
and the Plantagenet offspring will bear characteristic
blond hair that marks them from other dynastic lines in
England when the Planatagenets come to power there).
||The Almohad Dynasty comes to power in Morocco
||Stephen of Boulogne seizes the English crown
on the death of his uncle, Henry I. Civil war breaks out. Stephen will maintain precarious rule until 1154.
||c. 1136, Geoffrey of Monmouth writes the "History of the Kings of Britain," a Latin chronicle. It is the first elaborate account of the Arthurian court.
||Louis VII becomes ruler of France. He holds
the throne until 1180.
Conrad III becomes Holy Roman Emperor in Germany. He
holds imperial power until 1152.
Battle of the Standard: The English defeat David I
of Scotland, who fights on behalf of Matilda in the
English civil war.
Matilda lands in England.
The Second Lateran Council. This council ends a schism
in the Church following the illegal election of Anacletus
II as rival to Innocent II.
||Battle of Lincoln: Matilda captures Stephen
and sets herself up as queen. Her reign causes friction
with the general population. An uprising drives her from
power, and Stephen is restored to the throne.
||Count Alfonso becomes King Alfonso of Portugal
when he makes a successful bid for independence from the
rest of Spain.
||The Almohades begin campaign to conquer
Moorish lands in Spain. They conquer the last Moorish
lands in 1150.
||The Second Crusade begins. Saint Bernard
of Clairvaux appeals to nobility of Europe to return their
attention to the Holy Land, rousing many knights to battle.
The Crusaders fail to capture Damascus.
Matilda flees England for the last time.
Death of Geoffrey of Anjou.
Collapse of Toltec Empire in Mexico.
Marriage of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine
annulled on the questionable basis of blood kinship.
Eleanor promptly marries the younger, handsome Henry
of Anjou, allying Aquitaine to his lands of Anjou and
Normandy, two months after her divorce.
Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa) becomes Holy Roman
Emperor. He rules until 1190.
||Malcolm IV, "The Maiden," grandson
of David I, becomes ruler of Scotland. He rules until
Henry II becomes King of England and holder of more
than half the lands in France. He rules until 1189, and his Plantagenet descendants will continue through Richard II until 1399. Henry II's court will be a center of literature, learning, history, philosophy, poetry, and theology.
Pope Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear) ascends the papal
see. He is the first and only English pope. He maintains
his seat until 1159.
Last entry appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Peterborough).
Henry II appoints his rowdy, childhood friend Thomas
a Becket to the post of Chancellor.
Adrian IV grants Henry II the right to rule Ireland.
||Civil wars ravage Japan until 1185.
||Alfonso VIII becomes ruler of Castille.
He holds the throne until 1214.
||Explosives used in China during the Ts'ai-shih
||Henry II promotes Thomas a Becket to the
position of Archbishop of Canterbury. Soon after, Thomas
a Becket begins to quarrel with Henry II over ecclesiastical
||Constitutions of Clarendon restate laws
governing the trial of church officials in England. Becket
is forced to flee to France.
||William the Lion, younger brother of Malcolm
IV, becomes ruler of Scotland. He rules until 1214.
||Amalric, king of Jerusalem, captures Cairo.
||Arabs recapture Cairo, driving out Christian
The Almohad Dynasty falls from power in Morocco.
Salah-al Din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub (Saladin) becomes vizier
of Egypt until 1193 and holds power as sultan over Muslim
forces from 1174 onward.
Henry II reaches reconciliation with Thomas
a Becket, allowing him to return to England. When Becket
is in Canterbury, he is murdered by four knights (Richard
Brito, Hugh de Morville, William Tracy, and Reginald Fitzurse)
after Henry asks in a temper, "Will no man rid me
of this meddlesome priest?"
c. 1170 Poema Morale
||Henry II formally annexes Ireland.
||Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine leads Henry's
eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, in a plot to
overthrow King Henry II. The plot fails.
Saladin, in addition to his position as vizier of Egypt,
becomes supreme sultan over Muslim forces fighting against
the Christian crusaders.
Saladin conquers Syria.
||Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeats Saladin
Grand Assize of Windsor increases power of royal courts
Saladin besieges city of Tyre.
Saladin and Baldwin IV arrange a truce between them.
Philip II becomes ruler of France. He will hold the
throne until 1223.
Alexius II Comnenus becomes Emperor of Byzantium. He
will rule until 1183.
||Philip II banishes the Jews from France.
||Andronicus I becomes Emperor of Byzantium.
He rules until 1185.
Sancho I becomes ruler of Portugal. He remains king
Kamakura period begins in Japan (1185-1333).
Isaac II becomes Emperor of Byzantium. He rules until
c. 1185-1190 Giraldus Cambrensis writes his "Itinerary" and description of Wales.
||Saladin captures Jerusalem.
||Richard I (Richard Lionheart or Coeur de
Lion) eldest surviving son of Henry II, becomes ruler
of England. He will be king until 1199.
Death of Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa)
c. 1190 Nigel Wireker writes the Speculum Stultorum (Latin), "The Mirror of Fools"
||Richard Lionheart captures Jaffa, fashions
a peace-treaty with Saladin. On the way home to England,
he is captured by his enemy, Duke Leopold of Austria.
Death of Saladin.
Leopold hands Richard Lionheart over to Emperor Henry
VI, who greedily demands a ransom for his return.
Muslim forces capture Bihar and Bengal.
Al-Aziz Imad al-Din becomes successor to Saladin. Al-Aziz
rules until 1198.
||Marimid Dynasty in Morocco. Dynasty founded
at Fez, lasts until 1464.
Ottakar I becomes ruler of Bohemia. He will rule as
king until 1230.
The death of Emperor Henry VI in Germany causes outbreaks
of civil war in the Holy Roman Empire.
Otto IV becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He
will rule until 1212.
Pope Innocent III ascends the papal see. He will be
pope until 1216.
||Death of Richard Lionheart. John Lackland,
youngest son of Henry II, becomes ruler of England. His
inept rule will continue until 1216 and will be a period of corruption, political decay, and diminishing British power.
Morocco's Muslim government grants special privileges
to Jews in order to encourage trade and education.
Hunac Ceel revolts against the Maya of Chichén
Itzá. He establishes a new capital at Mayapán.
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