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Timeline 300-400:


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Diocletian orders Roman forces to persecute Christians. He orders Christian churches closed thoughout the Empire and scriptures burnt.
305 Diocletian and Maximian abdicate and chaos ensues as others compete for the imperial throne.


Emperor Constantine I ascends to the throne in the western half of the empire.


Maxentius, son of Maximian, becomes Emperor of the west. He rules until he is killed in 312.
312 Constantine I, defeats and kills Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. In medieval legend, he wins by painting crosses on the shields of the soldiers and converting to Christianity ("In hoc signo vinceres.")
313 Constantine declares the Edict of Toleration at Milan: Constantine thus allows Christianity to spread unmolested in the empire.

Chandragupta I founds the Gupta Dynasty, ruling northern India until 330.

The Chinese invent the first helicopter top spun by pulling a cord.

323-337 Constantine begins program to extend his power to the East.


Constantine temporarily re-unites the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire.
325 Nicaean Council


Constantine inaugurates the city of Constantinople--on the site of Byzantium--as capital of the Roman Empire--much to the dismay of the Romans.


Emperor Constantine of Byzantium dies. He is possibly baptized as a Christian on his deathbed.
Constantine's three sons, Constantine II, Constans, and Constantius share power peacefully for decades after his death.


Constantine II of Byzantium dies. Constans, and Constantius continue to share power for another decades after his death until Constans dies in 350 and Constantius dies in 361.

The Chinese invent the first wagon-mill (grinds grain during travel).


Christianity--particularly Coptic branches considered heretical--reach Ethiopia.
Constans dies.
351 Constantius, the last son of Emperor Constantine, temporarily reunites the eastern and western halves of the Empire.

Julian the Apostate reintroduces paganism in the Roman Empire instead of Christianity.
363 End of Julian the Apostate's reign. Jovianus becomes Emperor of Rome. Persia gains possession of Mesopotamia, seizing it from Rome.


Jovianus dies. Valentine becomes Emperor of Rome in the West and Valens becomes Emperor of Byzantium in the East..
366 In popular legend, this is the year Saint Augustine of Hippo first invents prayer beads in Europe.


c. 370 Huns from Asia begin their migratory raiding westward, pushing on Germanic tribes who in turn spill over into the boundaries of Rome. By year's end, Huns pillage regions of eastern Europe.

Anonymous Roman author produces De Rebus Bellicis, a design book of war-machines to be used agains the Vandals by Roman Emperor Valentinian I. Includes the first known oxen-powered paddleboat for amphibious warfare.


Buddhist doctrines carried to Korea.

Saint Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, creates the first well known public hospital.


Emperor Valentine of Rome dies. Gratin becomes Emperor of Rome.
Ghandragupta II becomes Emperor of the Gupta Empire in northern India. He rules until 415.


The Goths at Adrianopolis defeat and kill Valens, Emperor in the East.


Theodosius the Great rules of Roman Emperor in the East.


Magnus Maximus, Emperor in the West (until 388) conquers Spain and Gaul.
385 Rabbi Hillel II introduces the Jewish Calendar.


Emperor Theodosius the Great, ruler in the East, captures and executes Magnus Maximus.


Theodosius the Great temporarily reunites the Roman Empire.


Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome.

Theodosius the Great, Roman Emperor of the East, dies. Honorius becomes Emperor in the West until 423 and his brother Arcadius becomes Emperor in the East until 408.
Stilicho, Vandal leader of the Roman forces, drives the Visigoths out of Greece.




The Chinese invent edge-runner mills with water-powered drives and ships with watertight sub-compartments at about this time.

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Copyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2017. Permission is granted for non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated January 5, 2017. Contact: kwheeler@cn.edu Please e-mail corrections, suggestions, or comments to help me improve this site. Click here for credits, thanks, and additional copyright information.