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Credits and Copyright Information:

The materials for this website were compiled by Kip Wheeler. The website originally appeared at the University of Oregon on the Darkwing server and then relocated to Gonzaga University in August of 2002. In August of 2003, the website moved to Carson-Newman University. Thanks to heroic proofreaders and helpful staff are listed in full below.

Materials not created by Dr. Wheeler (including numerous photographs and handouts) should not be reproduced without prior permission of the author or copyright owner. The copyright information for these documents appears below. In the case of many images throughout the website, viewers may click on the specific image to follow an anchored link to the copyright information. The appearance of such materials on this website does in no way constitute a challenge to the trademark of any corporation or estate. If any copyright holders find material of theirs that they wish withdrawn from this website, you can contact Kip Wheeler to have this material removed.

Images that are not marked with hypertext links are downloadable clip art, or they are part of public domain in the United States legal system due to their age. These materials are also marked as such on this list of credits below. Other images are Kip Wheeler's original photographs taken in England and elsewhere. All content created specifically by Kip Wheeler is copyrighted ( 1998-2016). Permission is given for educational and nonprofit reproduction by students or teachers, as the notice indicates at the bottom of each page. I am in no way opposed to scholars, teachers, and students using these materials, though I would appreciate being given credit for them. All unauthorized reproduction for re-sale, business use, or profiteering is strictly forbidden under United States and international copyright laws. The penalty for such unauthorized reproduction is death.

I created a number of materials on Greece from the classical resources section with the generous suppport of the Appalachian College Association. The ACA provided grant money for me and sixteen other faculty from various ACA schools to spend May of 2006 in Greece collecting photographs of Greece and engaging in faculty development in classical literature. These materials are open-source, and available for use of any faculty in ACA colleges, as marked on the bottom of each page.


The images of the blue and red star clusters in the Antares Nebula come from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh/ Anglo-Australian Observatory. Bill Arnett, 1995 March 30. The two Latin quotations superimposed over them are from Seneca's classic poem, Hercules Furens.

The image of the gray gargoyles appearing stacked in the sidebar of the medieval monster pages is downloadable public clip art.

The image of the Chinese ideographs on all sections of the "Classical Chinese" webpages comes from a work entitled Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies, attributed to Ku K'Ai-chih and variously designated as retouched original of a Chinese painting of 390-400 CE or a copy of one 618-906 CE. It appears painted on a silk handscroll. I reproduce it from a photograph in Ancient China, by Edward H. Schafer et al, Time Life Books 1967. The original art is stored in the British Museum, London. Do note that half the text is intentionally left upside down so that I can more easily make a visually balanced running header. The upside text has not been left that way out of ignorance, but if you wish to copy the ideographs, you should be aware of this fact to avoid embarrassment.

The sidebar of yellow leaves found in the close reading exercise is downloadable public clip art.


The banner at the top of the home page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the syllabus page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the composition page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the grammar page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the research page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the rhetoric page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the literature page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the poetry page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and a clip art photograph.

The banner at the top of the classical page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 and an uncredited digital photograph of the caryatids. Any information regarding the original photographer would be greatly appreciated.

The banner at the top of the medieval page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0. The photograph comes from a stainglass portrait, "Pilgrims on the Road to Canterbury," from the southern aisle of the Trinity Chapel, built in the 13th century.

The banner at the top of the Renaissance page was created by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0. The diagram of the human mind is adapted from a woodcut found in John Dee's treatise on "Reason and the Senses." The image was provided courtesy of Ryan McBride. The image of the sabers at the bottom of the page is from an original photograph taken by Kip Wheeler in 1995 at Belvoir Castle in England.

Charts and Images:

The various charts of Indo-European languages and the maps showing the spread of each Indo-European language were created by Daniel M. Short for his website at http://www.danshort.com/. I use these images with the author's permission, and they are copyrighted by Daniel Short as of 2002. These charts should not be reproduced or reused without Mr. Short's permission. You may contact him at danshort@gte.net for more information. These images are not public domain.

The original image of the Beowulf manuscript comes from the anonymous Anglo-Saxon scribe who wrote the "Nowell Codex," Cotton Vitellius A.x.v. 129 r. It appears here as reproduced in Julius Zupitza's Beowulf: Autotypes of the Unique Cotton MS Vitellius A.xv. in the British Museum with a Transliteration and Notes. E.E.T.S. O.S. 77. London: Trubner & Co., 1882. This image is public domain.

The image of the pilgrim's gateway into Canterbury on the medieval websites page was an original photograph by Kip Wheeler in Canterbury, county of Kent, July 1995.

The image of the Caius Cibber's sculpture garden on the introduction to the teacher is an original photograph taken by Janita Hopkins and Kip Wheeler in July, 1995.

The chart of the human mouth, throat, and vocals cords on the Great Vowel Shift webpage is based on a diagram created by Professor James Boren, formerly of the University of Oregon.

The image of Vlad Tepes on the Survival Tips page is the Frontispiece of a Dracula pamphlet printed by Ambrosius Huber in Nuremberg, 1499. The manuscript is housed in the Library of the Academy of the Romanian Socialist Republic, Bucharest.

The student bibliographies created for English 199 are the intellectual property of the students listed at the bottom of each entry. The portrait at the top of the English 199 page is adapted from Brunelleschi's famous Renaissance paintings. They have been modified by Kip Wheeler using Adobe Photoshop 6.0.


"Greek Literature Offers Tragedy, Sex, Drama, and War" was written by Georgia Billingsley II. Her article first appeared in The Oregon Daily Emerald, volume 104, issue 9, page 7 on July 25, 2002. It is reproduced on this webpage with the author's permission. Copyright 2002, all rights reserved by Georgia Billingsley. Any errors in it are the result of my own scribal corruptions while copying rather than a product of the original work.

"Sara's Poem" was written by an anonymous student in my Writing 122 class at the University of Oregon. This student has given me permission to reproduce her work.

The Old English Bibliography: the First Fifty Titles is based almost entirely upon a handout given to me by Professor James Earl at the University of Oregon. Any errors in it are the result of my own scribal corruptions while copying rather than a product of the original work.

Special Thanks in Particular To:

Special thanks go to my wife, Dr. Catherine Faber, for proofreading various pages, offering suggestions, and generally putting up with my idiosyncratic working habits each day, and to server-administrators at each college for providing dataspace. Thanks to Dr. Rob Howard (currently the folklore specialist of apocalyptic sociology and religious studies in the Communication Arts Department at Wisconsin University) and Dr. Eric Reimer (currently teaching English at the Davidson Honors College in the University of Montana-Missoula), and Jennifer Shaiman for their assistance and tips with HTML programming at a graduate student workshop held in the University of Oregon when we were still lowly graduate students. Special thanks also to Professor Anne Laskaya for hosting the web design course and letting Eric and Rob have the opportunity to show us new webmaking tricks. Thanks also for comments and suggestions from former graduate student/colleagues Robin Pappas, Jeremy Popp, and Gary Bodie, and my former colleague at Gonzaga University, J. D. Thayer. Thanks to Dr. Mark Seagrove for aid in moving material to the new server and help with FTP problems.

Also, big thanks to those strangers online who've pointed out my more egregious errors on the website so I could correct them: Timothy Ingalls of the University of Alaska for corrections on the Logical Fallacies Handlist, David Ruekberg of Hilton High School pointed out I had switched "Gertrude" and "Ophelia" in a discussion of Hamlet, Elisabeth Davis of Central Piedmont Community College for rescuing a mislabeled relative pronoun, teacher Michael Canick for spotting typos in my logical fallacies exercise, Kerry White for directing me to missing material on handouts, Barbara Weatherford for offering her syllabus discussions, "Paul" from Pellikka@satx.it.com who kept me from grammatically emasculating Havelok the Dane, Dr. Steven Shankman for his helpful Chinese poetry commentary, Dutch librarian Daphne Jansen for corrections about Mieke Bal, Dr. Brenda McNellan of Indiana University for corrections concerning Joseph Andrews, and Dr. Sheila Davis of New School University, New York, for pointing out problems with aporia. Dr. Elizabeth M. Willingham was of assistance in pointing out a misattribution concerning the Summa Theologica and in providing additional references concerning medieval angelology. I fixed other typos noted by keen-eyed observers such as Hal Thomson, and James Waldby provided a number of useful comments and suggestions/corrections for rhetorical, poetical, and dramatic terms ranging from antimetabole to groundling.

Thanks to Professor Jameela Lares at the University of Southern Mississippi for corrections regarding akedah.

Dr. Jed Jones located a logical fallacy (ironically, in my discussion of logical fallacies). Looking at one of my historical timelines, Andrea Dillner noticed that I had performed a sex change on Joan of Kent, turning her into John of Kent--no doubt much to the horror of Joan's lover, Edward. Caleb Murdock spotted a misspelling of "Miniver Cheevy." Elly Bachrach's keen eye noticed an unfortunate typo in my acrostic definition. John Dingley of Warwickshire corrected a misspelling of Dutch sculptor Caius Cibber and prevented me from relocating his sculpture garden in another part of England. Warren Ham prevented me from turning Sir Gawain and the Green Knight into Sir Gawain and the Greek Knight. Edmond Clay deserves recognition for heroic proofreading over the winter break of 2003, in which he single-handedly analyzed and discussed all of the "literary term" entries current at that time--catching many typographical errors and offering fine suggestions that vastly improved the sense and substance of the material. (And he did all this while fending off a cold!) His feedback for drama terms in particular was helpful, which I have also supplemented with suggestions from Carlos Velásquez of the University of the Pacific.

Thanks to Leo Schmeltzer for suggesting updates to information about Harlaxton Manor, Damjan Martic for commentary on Serbo-Croatian, and "Claud" from melody117@comcast for corrections concerning Deconstruction. Madena Bennett of UCLA likewise helped me refine the vocabulary entry for "lexicon," Viking enthusiast A. B. Salter provided additional suggestions for the "Viking Attack" list, and Vicki Ford deserves thanks for her suggestions regarding glosa. Thanks to Mary Grace Weir for pointing out a contrast between Old Testament trial by ordeal and the Proto-Evangelium of James on the "Trial by Ordeal" section of the webpages, and to Bella Green's anonymous student who made some suggestions for additional web resources. Stanimir Genov provided useful clarifications about Azbuka, Mr. Zireaux from New Zealand offered suggestions regarding gradus and gimmal, and Christian Druitt had several fine suggestions for updates regarding the more dated materials on genre.

Penultimately, special thanks to Michael Reph and Chris Rutledge of Gonzaga University and Dr. Bethany Bear (an alumna of Carson-Newman University!) for pointing out missing material on the vocabulary list and doing Herculean proofreading work above and beyond their classroom duties as my students. Also, I owe a shout-out to Tiffany Delias for typing up various Anglo-Saxon materials and wrestling with archaic accent markings in Microsoft Word in preparation for making PDF files, and Anna Connollyand Heather Phillips for a variety of proofreading tasks.

Special thanks to the ACA (Appalachian College Association) for grant money to travel to Greece and create web materials on classical literature during the "Festivals and Sanctuaries of Ancient Greece" faculty development program for the year 2006.

Thanks also to the many kindly visitors who have dropped me an e-mail saying nice things about my website. Somewhat less thanks are due to those lost souls who dropped unusual, puzzling, or garbled questions in my lap on topics ranging from dinosaurs to potassium dichromate compounds.


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Copyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2018. Permission is granted for non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated April 24, 2018. Contact: kwheeler@cn.edu Please e-mail corrections, suggestions, or comments to help me improve this site. Click here for credits, thanks, and additional copyright information.