Home Page Button Syllabus / Policies Button Composition Button Grammar Button Rhetoric Button Rhetoric Button Literature button poetry button classical button medieval button Renaissance Button Vocabulary Button


This chart shows some of the letters used in Old English and Middle English that have fallen out of use in Modern English. The letter ash represented a vowel sound akin to the "a" in father, as opposed to the vowel sound in bat or rate. The letter eth represented a consonant sound akin to the "th" in thin, thigh, or with. The letter thorn, on the other hand, represented the "th" sound in then or thy. The letter yogh represented a Germanic, gargling sound in the back of throat no longer used in Modern English, but surviving as an often silent digraph <gh> in words like knight, caught, and laugh. Finally, the letter wyn represented the "w" sound in words like wonder or way. When it fell out of use, it was replaced with the modern <w>.



To Home Page
Copyright Dr. L. Kip Wheeler 1998-2018. Permission is granted for non-profit, educational, and student reproduction. Last updated April 24, 2018. Contact: kwheeler@cn.edu Please e-mail corrections, suggestions, or comments to help me improve this site. Click here for credits, thanks, and additional copyright information.